Potential Bias Associated with Modeling the Effectiveness of Healthcare Interventions in Reducing Mortality Using an Overall Hazard Ratio

Fernando Alarid-Escudero, Profesor Investigador de la División de Administración Pública y miembro del Programa de Políticas de Drogas del CIDE , y Karen M. Kuntz escribieron el artículo Potential Bias Associated with Modeling the Effectiveness of Healthcare Interventions in Reducing Mortality Using an Overall Hazard Ratio publicado en la revista PharmacoEconomics.

 

Abstract

 

Background

Clinical trials often report intervention efficacy in terms of the reduction in all-cause mortality between the treatment and control arms (i.e., an overall hazard ratio [oHR]) instead of the reduction in disease-specific mortality (i.e., a disease-specific hazard ratio [dsHR]). Using oHR to reduce all-cause mortality beyond the time horizon of the trial may introduce bias if the relative proportion of other-cause mortality increases with age. We sought to quantify this oHR extrapolation bias and propose a new approach to overcome this bias.

 

Methods

We simulated a hypothetical cohort of patients with a generic disease that increased background mortality by a constant additive disease-specific rate. We quantified the bias in terms of the percentage change in life expectancy gains with the intervention under an oHR compared with a dsHR approach as a function of the cohort start age, the disease-specific mortality rate, dsHR, and the duration of the intervention’s effect. We then quantified the bias in a cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators based on efficacy estimates from a clinical trial.

 

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